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NETWORKING TUNNELS with Dynamic Routing Protocols on Juniper Devices

NETWORKING TUNNELS

 

*Network tunnel s typically bridge networks

*Traffic can be encrypted

*Examples of tunnel use includes:

 ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ Hiding network traffic

 ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ Providing dedudant ​​ links

 ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​​​ Sending non-IP over IP Networks

*Encapsulators and decapsulatiors are better known as tunnel endpoins

*Tunnel layers

Most networks utilize layer 3 tunnels across IP networks

Tunnels can also operate at layer 2

Layer 2 tunnel can send encapsulated frames across other layer2 tunnels

 

Ipv4 ve IPv6 connectivity destekliyor tunel islemi

Examples of Tunnel Usage

Tunnels have a varierty of applications

Examples: private ip addresses

Ipv4

Remote networks for connecting

Providing network redundancy

Proxy Services​​ Types​​ 

Local proxy ​​ server

Cloud Proxy services

Traditional proxy servers

Service are provided by Zsclaer,Virtela and Symantec

 

 

IP PROTOCOL NUMBERS

TCP ​​ : 6

UDP ​​ :17

ICMP ​​ :1

 

OSPF:89

EIGRP:88

For VPN traffic

AH ​​ :51

ESP : 50

GRE:47

IPv6​​ 41

MPLS​​ in IP :137

Lt2p: 115

 

TUNNEL TYPES in Junos

There are several types of tunnel

1-IP in IP​​ Tunnels

Use only ​​ ipv4 networks

Support TCP,UDP,ICMP and other IP protocols(ospf)

 

2-GRE​​ TUNNELS

Use ip protocol 47

Layer 3 traffic encapsulation within IP header

Support IP protocols, IPX,Apple talk,Decent ,CLNS and IPv6

Sifreleme yapilabilir

The ecryption is known as​​ IPSec over GRE

 

 

MTU and TUNNELS

*IP packets minimum 20 bytes

*Maximum is 64Kb​​ 

 

 

Maximum Transmission Units (MTUs)

Default is 1500 bytes

If come over​​ packet size​​ , it will be​​ drop​​ 

 

Juniper has several recomandations about that:​​ 

*Set the MTU for a tunnel to 1524​​ 

*enable allow-fragmentation option

*enable clear-don`t -fregment option

*Use path MTU discovery

 

 

TUNNELS and DYNAMIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS

Tunnel ve routing protocols can use same time

Tunnels can send multicast traffic

Allows tunnels to OSPF hellos

Tunnels can also send RIP and BGP packets

These protocols make administration easier

They can have an adverse affect on tunnels

 

 

 

 

 

 

OSPF and TUNNEL